Table 1. Brain and cardiovascular responses to repetitive umbilical cord occlusions.
BaselineMild UCOMod UCOSev UCOPattern
dur UCObtw UCOdur UCObtw UCOdur UCObtw UCOdur UCObtw UCO
ECoG amplitude, μV127 ± 14130 ± 14131 ± 14152 ± 29152 ± 29140 ± 24156 ± 26102 ± 172209 ± 26
ECoG SEF (95%), Hz6.7 ± 0.68.2 ± 0.518.1 ± 0.517.6 ± 0.37.5 ± 0.46.0 ± 0.45.9 ± 0.311.0 ± 0.428.6 ± 0.5
EEG amplitude, μV37 ± 4461 ± 13466 ± 14448 ± 11456 ± 12473 ± 114102 ± 13181 ± 82138 ± 174
EEG SEF (95%), Hz4.4 ± 0.345.2 ± 0.945.0 ± 0.945.4 ± 0.844.3 ± 0.444.7 ± 0.444.4 ± 0.249.0 ± 0.728.1 ± 0.7
FHR, bpm159 ± 5165 ± 5162 ± 3131 ± 61153 ± 2115 ± 101162 ± 3101 ± 62171 ± 8
ABP, mmHg44 ± 248 ± 2149 ± 2154 ± 2153 ± 2160 ± 2160 ± 1157 ± 260 ± 2
ABPmax, mmHg64 ± 3274 ± 3288 ± 2265 ± 3
ABPmin, mmHg32 ± 2237 ± 236 ± 233 ± 3
FHRnadir, bpm123 ± 82,395 ± 5263 ± 5280 ± 6
ΔFHR, bpm39 ± 82,359 ± 42,399 ± 7290 ± 11
ΔABPUCO, mmHg33 ± 337 ± 352 ± 22,332 ± 2
ΔABP, mmHg16 ± 22,320 ± 22,328 ± 22,34 ± 3
  • UCO, umbilical cord occlusion; during, during UCO; between, between UCO; ECoG, electrocorticogram; EEG, electroencephalogram; SEF, 95% spectral edge frequency of ECoG or EEG; Cardiovascular measures “between UCO”: FHR, fetal heart rate; ABP, mean arterial blood pressure; Cardiovascular measures “during UCO”: ABPmax, maximal ABP during a UCO; ABPmin, minimal ABP during a UCO; FHRnadir, minimal FHR during a UCO; ΔFHR, FHR deceleration depth during UCO; ΔABPUCO, difference between ABPmax and ABPmin during UCO; ΔABP, difference between ABPmax and mean ABP between UCO.

  • “Pattern” denotes the time segment of the UCO series when synchronized ECOG/EEG‐FHR activities were observed (i.e., adaptive brain shut‐down).

  • Mean ± SEM. 1, versus baseline; 2, pairwise (i.e., during vs. between UCO or vs. another “during UCO” measurement for ABPmax, FHRnadir, ΔFHR, ΔABP, and ΔABPUCO); 3, versus the respective variable during Pattern; 4, EEG versus ECoG at the same time point.