Table 2. Participant characteristics and adipokines and other biomarkers in the whole group at T1, T2, T3, and T4
T1 (Study start)T2 (End of WL)T3 (End of WS)T4 (End of follow‐up)
Sex (male/female)29/27
Age (years)51.3 ± 1.2
Weight (kg)92.2 ± 1.383.7 ± 1.2**83.4 ± 1.388.1 ± 1.4**
BMI (kg/m2)31.1 ± 0.328.2 ± 0.3**28.1 ± 0.329.6 ± 0.4**
Waist circumference (cm)102.0 ± 1.394.4 ± 1.1**94.4 ± 1.298.0 ± 1.3**
Fat mass (%)39.8 ± 1.234.8 ± 1.4**33.8 ± 1.4**, 36.4 ± 1.4**
Fat‐free mass (kg)55.4 ± 1.654.4 ± 1.5**55.0 ± 1.655.8 ± 1.6*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124.9 ± 1.8119.8 ± 1.8**120.7 ± 1.8124.7 ± 1.9**
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)85.2 ± 1.479.6 ± 1.1**79.6 ± 1.283.0 ± 1.3**
Glucose (mmol/L)5.2 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.1**5.1 ± 0.1*, 5.0 ± 0.1*
2‐h glucose (mmol/L)6.3 ± 0.25.8 ± 0.35.5 ± 0.2**
Insulin (μU/mL)15.8 ± 0.811.5 ± 0.6**13.1 ± 0.8*, 13.0 ± 1.1
FFA (μmol/L)457 ± 23658 ± 36**446 ± 29**542 ± 26**
TAG (μmol/L)1196 ± 66864 ± 51**1018 ± 53**, 994 ± 52
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.0 ± 0.15.2 ± 0.1**5.7 ± 0.1**, 5.9 ± 0.1*
Adipocyte size (μm)68.5 ± 0.762.0 ± 0.7**65.6 ± 0.7**, 67.4 ± 0.7**
HOMA‐IR3.75 ± 0.212.60 ± 0.16**2.95 ± 0.18*, 2.78 ± 0.25*
ACE activity (U/L)46.5 ± 2.641.5 ± 2.4**44.2 ± 3.4**46.9 ± 2.7*
IL‐6 (pg/mL)0.73 ± 0.050.75 ± 0.050.73 ± 0.050.64 ± 0.04
RBP4 (μg/mL)27.0 ± 1.123.7 ± 1.1**26.2 ± 1.0**27.4 ± 1.0*
Apelin (ng/mL)0.63 ± 0.040.59 ± 0.040.65 ± 0.050.54 ± 0.04**
Leptin (ng/mL)29.4 ± 2.713.2 ± 1.5**17.7 ± 1.9**, 24.6 ± 2.6**
Adiponectin (μg/mL)9.0 ± 0.79.4 ± 0.7*10.0 ± 0.7*, 9.9 ± 0.7
Vaspin (ng/mL)0.34 ± 0.070.28 ± 0.050.38 ± 0.05**, 0.36 ± 0.06
Nesfatin‐1 (ng/mL)2.52 ± 0.712.64 ± 0.802.65 ± 0.782.68 ± 0.79
  • Values are mean ± SEM. *< 0.05, **< 0.01 change between this time point and previous time point. < 0.05, < 0.01 change between the end of WS and study start (DI period). WL, weight loss; WS, weight stable; LCD, low‐calorie diet; VLCD, very‐low‐calorie diet; HOMA‐IR, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; RBP4, retinol‐binding protein 4; IL‐6, interleukin 6.