Table 1. Characteristics of study participants in the LCD and VLCD groups
GroupT1 (Study start)T2 (End of WL)T3 (End of WS)T4 (End of follow‐up)Diet × time (P‐value)
Sex (female/male) LCD
VLCD
15/14
15/12
Age (year) LCD
VLCD
51.8 ± 1.9
50.8 ± 1.5
Weight (kg) LCD
VLCD
92.4 ± 1.9
92.0 ± 1.8
84.2 ± 1.9
83.1 ± 1.6
84.0 ± 1.9
82.8 ± 1.7
88.4 ± 2.0
87.7 ± 2.0
0.670
BMI (kg/m2) LCD
VLCD
31.3 ± 0.5
30.8 ± 0.4
28.6 ± 0.5
27.9 ± 0.4
28.5 ± 0.5
27.8 ± 0.4
30.0 ± 0.5
29.1 ± 0.5
0.769
Waist circumference (cm) LCD
VLCD
102.6 ± 2.0
101.3 ± 1.5
95.3 ± 1.8
93.6 ± 1.4
94.3 ± 2.0
94.6 ± 1.3
98.3 ± 1.9
97.6 ± 1.6
0.266
Fat mass (%) LCD
VLCD
39.9 ± 1.8
39.7 ± 1.6
34.5 ± 2.1
35.1 ± 1.9
33.8 ± 2.1
33.9 ± 1.9
36.5 ± 2.0
36.3 ± 1.9
0.298
Fat‐free mass (kg) LCD
VLCD
55.4 ± 2.2
55.5 ± 2.3
54.9 ± 2.1
53.9 ± 2.2
55.2 ± 2.2
54.7 ± 2.3
56.0 ± 2.3
55.7 ± 2.3
0.034
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) LCD
VLCD
126.8 ± 2.4
122.9 ± 2.8
123.7 ± 2.3
115.6 ± 2.5
124.1 ± 2.1
117.1 ± 2.8
127.4 ± 2.3
121.6 ± 3.0
0.474
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) LCD
VLCD
85.9 ± 1.9
84.4 ± 2.0
81.1 ± 1.5
78.0 ± 1.7
81.0 ± 1.5
78.2 ± 1.9
83.1 ± 1.8
82.9 ± 1.9
0.392
Glucose (mmol/L) LCD
VLCD
5.3 ± 0.1
5.2 ± 0.1
5.1 ± 0.1*
4.8 ± 0.1
5.1 ± 0.1*
5.0 ± 0.1
5.0 ± 0.1
4.9 ± 0.1
0.015
2‐h glucose (mmol/L) LCD
VLCD
5.9 ± 0.3
6.6 ± 0.4
5.0 ± 0.2
6.8 ± 0.5
5.8 ± 0.4
5.3 ± 0.2
0.000
Insulin (uU/mL) LCD
VLCD
17.1 ± 1.1
14.4 ± 1.2
12.4 ± 0.7
10.5 ± 1.1
13.4 ± 0.8
12.8 ± 1.4
12.8 ± 1.3
13.2 ± 1.9
0.195
FFA (μmol/L) LCD
VLCD
496 ± 32
414 ± 30
559 ± 38.8**
763 ± 56
477 ± 45**
413 ± 35
531 ± 36
555 ± 38
0.000
TAG (μmol/L) LCD
VLCD
1217 ± 98
1174 ± 90
947 ± 82
775 ± 55
1014 ± 82
1023 ± 65
977 ± 67
1013 ± 82
0.171
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) LCD
VLCD
6.0 ± 0.2
5.9 ± 0.2
5.8 ± 0.2
4.9 ± 0.1
5.8 ± 0.2*
5.7 ± 0.2
5.8 ± 0.1
6.0 ± 0.2
0.000
Adipocyte size (μm) LCD
VLCD
68.2 ± 1.0
68.7 ± 1.0
61.3 ± 0.8
62.8 ± 1.2
65.9 ± 0.8
65.2 ± 1.2
67.0 ± 0.9
67.8 ± 1.0
0.342
  • Values are mean ± SEM. Post hoc results for significant diet × time interactions are shown with Bonferroni corrections. WL, weight loss; WS, weight stable; LCD, low‐calorie diet; VLCD, very‐low‐calorie diet.

  • *< 0.05, **< 0.01 difference in change between this time point and previous time point between dietary groups.

  • < 0.05 difference in change T3–T1 (DI period) between dietary groups, < 0.05 difference in change T4–T3 (follow‐up) between dietary groups.