Table 1. Physiological variables during passive heating in untrained individuals (n = 9) and trained athletes (n = 10)
Changes in oral temperature from baseline resting (°C)
BL0.30.60.91.21.5
HR (beats min−1)a
Untrained77 (20)95 (16)105 (18)116 (19)126 (20)132 (21)
Trained53 (7)65 (4)74 (5)82 (7)89 (9)93 (10)
Oral temperature (C°)
Untrained36.91 (0.31)37.16 (0.30)37.46 (0.31)37.76 (0.31)38.06 (0.31)38.30 (0.30)
Trained36.82 (0.28)37.06 (0.27)37.36 (0.27)37.65 (0.27)37.96 (0.27)38.20 (0.28)
Mean skin temperature (C°)
Untrained33.33 (1.07)36.58 (0.98)36.99 (0.76)37.38 (0.64)37.75 (0.59)37.95 (0.59)
Trained33.59 (0.39)36.86 (0.34)37.17 (0.39)37.51 (0.42)37.82 (0.40)38.04 (0.43)
Mean body temperature (C°)
Untrained36.14 (0.41)37.05 (0.39)37.36 (0.36)37.69 (0.35)38.00 (0.35)38.24 (0.33)
Trained36.08 (0.25)37.02 (0.23)37.32 (0.24)37.62 (0.26)37.93 (0.26)38.17 (0.28)
  • Values given are the means (SD). BL, baseline. HR, heart rate.

  • a Significant main effect of group (P < 0.01).