Physiological Reports

Author Guidelines


Physiological Reports is an online, open access journal that will publish peer reviewed research across all areas of basic and translational physiology and allied disciplines. The journal is interested in cellular and molecular studies as well as intact tissues, model organisms and translational studies. We welcome the work of biomedical scientists, whose studies incorporate physiological findings. Papers with negative data or confirmatory results are acceptable as long as they are well conceived. Papers concerned with modeling or new methods are acceptable as long as they are of physiological interest. Similarly, case reports are acceptable, so long as they have a physiological focus.Physiological Reports does not publish clinical trials or unsolicited review articles. For further information, see the journal’s full scope statement.

Please note that the Editors and reviewers attach great importance to manuscripts that present clear and concise text and that conform to accepted standards of American English style and usage. Authors for whom English is not their native language are strongly encouraged to seek the aid of a professional English language editorial service; see below for further details.


  1. Submit or confirm your submission at
  2. We will send you an email confirmation of your submission details.
  3. After review and acceptance, you will be contacted by Wiley Author Services prompting you to log in/register and sign the Open Access Agreement. Payment of the article publication charge will be required. You can then track the progress of your article through Wiley Author Services.
  4. You will receive notification that your proof is ready for review, and you will be able to make corrections to your article using e-annotation tools for electronic proof correction.
  5. Your article will be published on Wiley Online Library and Highwire Press. If you have previously signed up for alerts through Wiley’s Author Services, you will be sent an email when your article is published online.


We have introduced a convenient new process for signing your Open Access Agreement electronically (eOAA) that will save you considerable time and effort. If your manuscript is accepted, the Corresponding Author will receive an email with a link to an online eOAA form. This will enable the Corresponding Author to complete the form electronically within ScholarOne Manuscripts on behalf of all authors on the manuscript. You may preview the copyright terms and conditions here.

Susan Wray, BSc, PhD

Thomas Kleyman, MD

Address correspondence to the Editorial Office:


The Journal requires that authors submit electronically via the online submission site at


ORCID is a new service for authors/researchers in the scholarly community that uniquely identifies your contributions to the scholarly literature. Obtaining an ORCID identifier is now an option in your ScholarOne user account. We encourage you to register by clicking the "Edit Account" at the top right of the screen and adding your ORCID identifier to step 3 of your ScholarOne account information.


  1. Original research
  2. Editorials
  3. Letters to the Editor
  4. Case reports (physiological focus)


Manuscripts must be submitted in grammatically correct American or British English consistent throughout the manuscript. Those that do not meet this standard cannot be reviewed. Authors for whom English is not their first language may wish to consult an English-speaking colleague or consider having their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. A manuscript is considered for review and possible publication on the condition that it is submitted solely to Physiological Reports and that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere.


We place very few restrictions on the way in which you prepare your article, and it is not necessary to try to replicate the layout of the journal in your submission. We ask only that you consider your reviewers by supplying your manuscript in a clear, generic and readable layout, and ensure that all relevant sections are included; figure(s) and table(s) are not included in the same document file as the main body and should be uploaded as a separate file (please refer to the figure and table guidelines below).Our production process will take care of all aspects of formatting and style. The list below can be used as a checklist to ensure that the manuscript has all the information necessary for successful publication.

  • Title page, including title, authors’ names, authors’ affiliations, and contact information
  • Abstract and 4–6 key words
  • Running title not exceeding 50 characters and spaces
  • Text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions)
  • Literature cited (see below for tips on references)
  • Acknowledgements, including details of funding bodies with grant numbers
  • Disclosure Statement
  • Tables (may be sent as a separate file if necessary)
  • Figure legends
  • Figures


The title should contain no more than 160 characters (including spaces). Include the species, tissue, organ or system if this is important in the context of the findings. Avoid specialist abbreviations if possible. The title page must contain the full title of the article; author(s) name(s); all departments and institutions in which the work was done; an abbreviated title for the running head (limit of 70 characters); and the corresponding author's name, e-mail, and physical address for correspondence. Only one author may be designated as the corresponding author. The Editorial Board endorses the general principles set out in Guidelines on Good Publication Practice produced by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; Guidelines on Good Publication Practice). The author submitting a manuscript must ensure that all authors listed are eligible for authorship. Each author should take responsibility for a particular section of the study and have contributed to writing or reviewing the manuscript. Acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not alone justify authorship; these contributions to the study should be listed in the Acknowledgements. Additional information such as ‘X and Y have contributed equally to this work’ may be added as a footnote on the title page. A full address for correspondence must be included, with a current, valid email address for the corresponding author. The address will appear on the first page of the article if the article is accepted for publication.

If authorship of a manuscript changes during the publication process, notification of the change, signed by all authors, including authors whose names have been added to or removed from the manuscript, must be sent to the editorial office.


Please visit the Author Resources site on for additional resources and bilingual, short presentations on different topics of interest.


An unnumbered one-paragraph abstract of not more than 250 words reflecting the contents of the manuscript must be included. It must state concisely what was done and why (including species and state of anesthesia), what was found (in terms of data, if space allows), and what was concluded. References may not be cited. Reviewers and readers pay particular attention to abstracts, and so it is in your best interest to provide a well written abstract, which clearly shows how your work has advanced scientific understanding.


Authors should avoid abbreviations unless they are easily understood and help in reading the manuscript. Abbreviations well known in the field do not need to be explicitly defined at first usage. All other abbreviations should be defined at their first mention including in review articles; an alphabetical list should be provided.


Provide a brief overview of the scope and relevance of the study, especially with regard to previous advancements in related fields. Reference to the authors' previous work is desirable only if it has a direct bearing on the subject of the manuscript; an extensive historical review is not appropriate. It is often helpful to finish with a statement of what your aims are, and these should follow logically from your overview.


Methods are described once only and do not appear in the legends to figures and tables. Details should be sufficient to allow the work to be repeated by others, and appropriate citations to previous work giving further fuller details can be made. Describe techniques, cell/animal models used including the source of cells utilized (species, strain, sex, race, age of donor, whether primary or established), and lists of reagents, chemicals, and equipment, as well as the names of manufacturers and suppliers, including city, state (if applicable) and country for those supplies obtained online, so that your study can be most easily replicated by others. Proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized, with the spelling carefully checked. The generic name or generic descriptor accompanies the trade name the first time it appears. Other data relating to unique biological, biochemical, and/or immunological markers should also be included if available, with their source identified. Authors are expected to make unique reagents available to qualified investigators either directly or through a recognized distributor. For studies involving humans, the sex of participants must be reported. Also in this section, describe the statistical methods that were used to evaluate the data. If clinical trials were used, a statement of registration is required; also, for all investigations involving humans or animals, a statement of protocol approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), or an equivalent statement, must be included. The Editorial Board endorses the ARRIVE Guidelines for reporting in vivo experiments.


Provide the experimental data and results as well as the particular statistical significance of the data. Figures or graphs that show individual values are better than only presenting solid bars indicating a mean value, unless the number of observations is large, in which case a box and whisker plot can be used. These original data traces allow the reviewers and readers to judge the quality of the data the authors have been able to obtain, and the normal experimental noise or variation encountered. A figure combining a typical experimental trace and then showing mean data with error bars and significance usually works best. As Physiological Reports is an online only journal, authors are encouraged to make full use of color to enhance the presentation of their data but check clarity is maintained if printed out in black and white format. Authors should ensure that their data are treated correctly and seek statistical advice if necessary. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), not t tests, should be used for multiple comparisons; parametric and non-parametric statistics should be used appropriately, and particular care should be taken with means and errors if data have been transformed onto a logarithmic scale. Standard deviation and standard error of the mean should be specified and used appropriately, as measures of dispersion and precision of a summary value, and given with a suitable number of significant figures. The n value should be stated, and where appropriate specify if it refers to number of animals or preparations, and use “N” and “n” to distinguish. Tests of significance should be specified on each occasion and in full, e.g., Student's paired t test.


Explain your interpretation of the data, especially compared with previously published material cited in the References.


As with the main body of text, the completeness and content of your reference list is more important than the format chosen. A clear and consistent, generic style will assist the accuracy of our production processes and produce the highest quality published work, but it is not necessary to try to replicate the journal’s own style, which is applied during the production process. If you use bibliographic software to generate your reference list, select a standard output style, and check that it produces full and comprehensive reference listings. A guide to the minimum elements required for successful reference linking appears below. The final journal output will use the ‘Harvard’ style of reference citation. If your manuscript has already been prepared using the ‘Vancouver’ system, we are quite happy to receive it in this form. We will perform the conversion from one system to the other during the production process.


Journal Article
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Article title
Journal title (preferably not abbreviated)
Volume number
Page range

Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Book title
Place of publication
No. of pages

Book Chapter
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Chapter title
Book Author/Editor
Book title
Place of publication
Page range


The endnotes section is the place to list any additional items pertinent to your article, including but not limited to links to non-peer-reviewed data that may be available to readers from your institutional website.


Submitted manuscripts still in preparation or in peer review and/or any other unpublished materials, observations, or personal communications cannot be included in the reference list, which may only list published work. However, such material can be cited in the text, but at submission, authors will be required to confirm that all individuals acknowledged in the manuscript are aware that they are being acknowledged and approve of the manner and the context of the acknowledgement. This includes, but is not limited to the following circumstances:

  • to publish information disclosed in a personal communication or unpublished observation;
  • to recognize additional individuals who helped in preparation of the manuscript;
  • for permission from a copyright holder to discuss information that has been accepted for publication but is "in press" and not yet available, online or otherwise.


References to online research articles should always include a DOI, where available. When referring to other Web pages, it is useful to include a date on which the resource was accessed.


Authors are encouraged to submit as supporting material Excel spreadsheets of the data that underlie their figures and tables, along with a brief (50 word) description. Please upload the spreadsheet(s) when submitting as a Data File and include the brief description after the acknowledgments in the main document under the heading “Data Files”.

Other video and audio files (QuickTime, mpeg, SWF), program code, glossary, appendices and similar material that cannot be feasibly published in the journal article may also be submitted as “Supplemental Material for Review and Publication”. Such material must be submitted for peer review along with the manuscript and must meet the approval of the journal Editor. For all supplemental materials, authors should include a caption for each file, explaining the purpose and content of the file.

Material such as figures, tables, text (e.g., methods or results), equations, and other material that can be easily copyedited and typeset into a final-published PDF page may NOT be submitted as supplemental material. Such items must be incorporated into the article as standard figures or tables or provided as "supporting information" for submission and review purposes only and not for final publication.


Along with the submitted manuscript, one author, preferably the corresponding author, may provide a working URL from their institutional website that links to additional materials such as data sets and/or detailed methods and protocols, materials that may be updated from time to time. Only one URL may be provided, taking the reader to a top level screen, should materials reside on multiple levels. Materials accessible through this link a) will not be considered part of the manuscript; b) will not be peer reviewed; and c) should not be submitted with the manuscript. This facility is made available for manuscripts where authors consider that additional materials could be useful to readers seeking to replicate or expand upon the work. The Journal Editors and societies take no responsibility for materials posted and linked to in this way. A declaration in the manuscript pointing to these materials should be included as an ‘endnote’ (following all text and preceding the references in the manuscript) in the following format:

At the request of the author(s), readers are herein alerted to the fact that additional materials related to this manuscript may be found at the institutional website of one of the authors, which at the time of publication they indicate is: [Insert URL here]. These materials are not a part of this manuscript and have not undergone peer review by Physiological Reports, and the editors take no responsibility for these materials, for the website address, or for any links to or from it.


Acknowledgements should be the minimum consistent with courtesy. The acknowledgements section is where you may wish to thank people indirectly involved with the research (e.g., technical assistance; gifts of samples, reagents, or cell lines; loans of equipment or laboratory space; comments or suggestions during the creation of the manuscript). However, it is important that anyone listed here know in advance of your acknowledgement of their contribution, as documented during the submission process. Current addresses of authors (which may differ from those in the affiliation line) may be included here.


Authors must indicate the source of their funding. List the grants, fellowships, and donations that funded (partially or completely) the research. However, industry-sponsored grants should be listed in the “Disclosures” section of the submission form.


Physiological Reports requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest at submission in the Disclosure Statement. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to, patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. Authors who have commercial associations must assert that they accept full responsibility for the conduct of the trial, had full access to all the data, and controlled the decision to publish. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to list on the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript, and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

The above policies are in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.


 In presenting data, authors should use SI or other metric units, not British Imperial or United States customary units.


All figures must be cited in the text in the order that they appear. Every figure must have a descriptive figure caption to describe to the reader in sentence form the relevant details of the figure. All figures must not be included in the main document file, but instead uploaded as a separate file either collectively in a .PDF, .DOC or .PPT, or as individual files not exceeding the below file size. Illustrations are an important medium through which to convey the meaning in your article, and there is no substitute for preparing these to the highest possible standard. Manuscripts describing original work without figures are unlikely to be accepted. Therefore, please create your illustrations carefully with reference to our graphics guidelines (see It is very difficult to improve an image that has been saved or created in an inappropriate format. We realize that not everyone has access to advanced graphics software, so the following information may help if you are having difficulty in deciding how to get the best out of the tools at your disposal.

  1. Check your software options to see if you can ‘save as’ or ‘export’ your figures using one of the robust, industry-standard formats. These are:
    • Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
    • Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
    • Portable Network Graphics (PNG)
    • Portable Document Format (PDF)
  2. As a general rule of thumb, images that contain text and line art (graphs, charts, maps, etc.) will reproduce best if saved as EPS or PDF. If you choose this option, it is important to remember to embed fonts. This ensures that any text reproduces exactly as you intend. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).
  3. Images that contain photographic information are best saved as TIFF or PNG, as this ensures that all data are included in the file. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).
  4. If you are not sure which format would be the best option, it is always best to default to EPS or PDF, as these are more likely to preserve the high-quality characteristics of the original, so long as the individual file size does not exceed 10 MB.
  5. Microsoft Office. If you have generated your images in Microsoft Office software (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), or similar, it is often best simply to upload the files in their native file formats.
  6. Please ensure images are of 300 dpi and do not exceed 10MB in file size (all files combined should not exceed 100MB).


Images in the tables of contents and e-toc alerts for Physiological Reports, accompanied by 2-3 sentences highlighting the major findings of the article and their impact for physiology, are aimed at promoting articles. 

Please upload the following files in first step of the submission process.

  • a Word document file with the file designation "TOC abstract". The toc abstract text should consist of 2-3 sentences (maximum X characters with space) highlighting the major findings of the article and their impact for physiology.
  • a figure file with the file designation "TOC figure". You can designate a figure within your manuscript to be used in the toc; or alternatively provide an additional figure or graphical abstract as a pictorial and visual summary, for the toc.  The figure should ideally be representative of your manuscript and should contain no caption, heading or outline. The figure needs to be of a high resolution and saved as a .tiff file (300 d.p.i. for color/half tone and 800 d.p.i. for line work), or saves as .eps or .doc files. Before uploading the file, all white/blank spaces around the figure should be cropped out.


Photographic images such as micrographs or photographs of gel arrays are primary data and must not be edited using tools offered by imaging software such as Photoshop, although images can be sized and cropped if necessary. The component parts of composite photographic images should be indicated by dividing lines and the origin of the parts should be described in the legend. If adjustments to contrast, brightness or color balance are desired to make features of interest in the image clearer, they should be made to the whole image and reported in the figure legend. Authors are required to store original image data for 5 years following publication and to provide these files to the Journal if requested. Submitted images will undergo manipulation checks at random.


  1. At the Editor's discretion, Physiology Reports will publish Letters to the Editor, which address specific issues in manuscripts published by the journal.
  2. There is a 1000-word limit (excluding title, authors, affiliation and references). 
  3. References are limited to 10, which must include the manuscript that the letter is addressing
  4. Letters should NOT include an abstract, key words, or running title.
  5. Multiple authors are allowed.
  6. Letters are peer reviewed. There is no guarantee that submitted letters will be published.
  7. Authors of the manuscript that the letter will be provided an opportunity to respond. This response will also be peer reviewed.
  8. Both the letter and the response will be published at the same time, if possible.
  9. Only one round of correspondence between the authors of the letter and the authors of the response will be allowed. 
  10. There are no charges for letters and responses.


For authors submitting case reports, the following criteria apply:

  1. There is a 2000-word limit (excluding title, authors, affiliation and references)
  2. Figures and tables are limited to two of each item
  3. An abstract of up to 200 words to be included
  4. An introduction, the case report, and review of the relevant literature to be included
  5. The case report and discussion must have a physiological focus
  6. The case report will normally be written by a trainee, in conjunction with a clinician and a physiologist
  7. Case reports are peer reviewed. There is no guarantee that submitted case reports will be published
  8. Clinically qualified Associate Editors will handle the reviews. We currently have two such AEs.
  9. Normal ethical criteria regarding work with humans, as agreed by the Societies must be adhered to
  10. There is a charge of $1000 / £643 / €753 for case reports

It should also be noted that Physiological Reports endorses the CARE Statement ( and authors are recommended to refer to the CARE Statement checklist at for guidance. All Physiological Reports’ case reports involving human patients require signed informed consent from either the patient or a relative if the patient is unable to provide consent. Please use either the Physiological Reports’ Patient Consent Form or any other suitable consent form (e.g. from your own institution). You do not need to upload the consent documentation when submitting your manuscript, but we may request copies at any time.



Individuals described within a manuscript should be regarded with sensitivity. They should be referred to as patients rather than cases or as having a condition rather than being simply labeled by a specific terminology. Consider and avoid any stigmatizing terms, such as simian. If it is necessary to identify an individual, use a numerical designation (e.g., Patient 1) rather than using any other identifying notations such as initials. Phenotypic descriptors should be standardized as much as possible and follow these guidelines from the Elements of Morphology project:


Physiological Reports requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining written informed consent of any and all human subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication, and a statement to this effect must be included in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. Identifying information should not be included in the manuscript unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the study participants or patients (or parents or guardians) give written informed consent with the manuscript.


A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. For research involving recombinant DNA, containment facilities and guidelines should conform to those of the National Institutes of Health or corresponding institutions. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration should be followed. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.


The research described in papers submitted that involve the use of human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, or embryonic cells must adhere to U.S. Public Law 103-43, Section 498B(a) and Title 45, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects, Revised January 15, 2009, effective July 14, 2009, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office for the Protection from Research Risks, unless regulated by more restrictive state or local laws.


Physiological Reports encourage all prospective authors to work with families prior to submission to address the issue of permission for review and possible publication of patient images. If your submission contains ANY identifiable patient images or other protected health information, you MUST provide documented permission from the patient (or the patient’s parent, guardian, or legal representative) before the specific material will be circulated among Physiological Reports editors, reviewers and staff for the purpose of possible publication in Physiological Reports. The documented permission may be supplied as supporting information uploaded with the submission. While the manuscript will be processed upon submission, anything considered protected health information will be restricted from access prior to the receipt of documented permission and will not be sent for review until received. The submission of masked photos without sufficient de-identification (i.e., facial photographs with small dark geometric shapes over the eyes) is strongly discouraged.


All manuscripts must include (when available) HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC)-approved gene symbols and OMIM database reference numbers (visit their new website at for genes and/or disorders. Approved human gene symbols should be obtained prior to submission from the HGNC, at or by email to In addition, commonly used alternative gene and disease symbols may also be used in the abstract (180–200 words) and key words. Note: OMIM entries now clearly indicate the most current HGNC-approved gene symbol, but it may not be listed in the main title.


Physiological Reports supports the recommendations of the Human Variome Project (Cotton RGH et al., Nat Genet. 39: 433, 2007; Consequently, authors are required to submit all variants included in an article to the respective Locus Specific Database (LSDB) prior to acceptance. Authors must confirm the status of database submission in their cover letter. In addition, authors should note in the manuscript (e.g., in the Materials and Methods section) the LSDB(s) to which they have submitted their variants and provide the URL. The Editors also encourage the use of widely accessible genetics databases as repositories for human gene mapping information, including loci (genes, fragile sites, DNA segments) and probes. In the case of dbSNP, the identification numbers should be used, if available, to describe the SNPs in the manuscript. Further information, including updates on links to Locus-Specific Databases, can be obtained from the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) web site


Physiological Reports has adopted the microarray data standard developed by the Functional Genomics Data Society (FGED) and requests that all authors using microarray data analysis in their research submit a complete data set to one of these two databases prior to manuscript submission: the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) or the EMBL-EBI ArrayExpress repository. Also, provide the set of login credentials (username and password) that will let reviewers access the data set during review, if it is set up as a private resource.
Microarray data should be MIAME compliant (for guidelines see


Because of the importance of the issue and the overall consensus on the rules, Physiological Reports is adopting an editorial policy that requires absolute compliance with the rules to describe sequence variants before manuscripts will be accepted and published. The most current guidelines are summarized on the Mutation Nomenclature Homepage at the HGVS website ( Examples of acceptable nomenclature are also provided. Important considerations include:

  • Variants should be described in the text and tables using both DNA and protein designations whenever appropriate.
  • If alternative nomenclature schemes are commonly found in the literature, they may also be used in addition to approved nomenclature, but they must be defined clearly.
  • Variants may be described using dbSNP identifiers (e.g., rs123456:A>G).
  • Authors should always include the GenBank Accession Number of the relevant wild-type gene sequence(s), with version number (e.g., RefSeq NM_123456.3 or GenBank U654321.1), in the Materials and Methods section and as a footnote in tables listing mutations.
  • When describing new variants an electropherogram must be provided even if only in a supplemental figure for review only.

Acceptance and/or publication may be delayed if authors are unable to follow the guidelines properly.


The metric system should be used for all measurements, weights, temperatures, etc.


For special characters not available on the standard 104-key keyboard (e.g., Greek characters, mathematical symbols, figure symbols), use the Symbol font or use the "Insert Symbol" function in Microsoft Word; do not use Math font or image files (e.g., GIF) within the text for special characters or text constructions.


Mathematical equations should be simplified as much as possible and carefully checked.

  • Use the slant line (/) for simple fractions (a+b)/(x+y) in the text rather than the built-up fraction a+b[over]x+y, which should only be used if the equation is offset from the text.
  • Use subscripts or superscripts wherever feasible and appropriate to simplify the equations.
  • Please use notation that is consistent with the standard nomenclature in applied mathematics. As an aid to the reader, please state the convention that you are following, especially if it is uncommon.
  • Symbols should be defined as they first appear in the text. A glossary may be included (and is often helpful) in articles with many different symbols, specifying the units (dimensions) as well as each definition. The Glossary will usually precede the Materials and Methods section.


Presentation of the model(s) must be sufficiently clear to allow readers with limited experience in modeling to follow the model development, limitations, and physiological relevance. Assumptions concerning the importance of physiological processes included in the model should be clearly stated.

  • If the model equation(s) require solution, the method of solution should be described in sufficient detail to permit readers to duplicate the solution in their own laboratories. Algorithms from commercial software libraries should be so identified. Details of the solution strategy may be summarized in an Appendix.
  • For simulations, sources or estimation methods for all parameter values should be presented and the numerical values given in the text or a table. A sensitivity analysis must be performed for important parameters (covering ranges of values relevant to the manuscript) to determine how the model predictions are affected by numerical parameter values.
  • If the model is used to estimate parameter values, measures of the uncertainties associated with the estimated parameter values should be presented.
  • For models intended for use in a predictive setting, validation of the model with a data set not used for model parameter estimation (i.e., cross-validation) is recommended. Sensitivity analysis or parameter uncertainty determination is an important component of modern modeling practice that allows assessment of the validity of a model.
  • Results obtained with the model(s) should be compared with appropriate physiological data, either from the literature or from new experiments. Simulation results may be examined for prediction of changes or trends in physiological variables similar to those reported for in vitro or in vivo studies. The discussion should include information on the physiological significance of the model study, limitations of the model, and suggestions for new modeling and/or experimental studies.



Except in reviews and editorials, Physiological Reports will not accept submissions in which data in the form of figures and/or tables have been published elsewhere. A submission must be accompanied by copies of any material published by the authors in the last year that overlaps the content of the manuscript. This should include preliminary notes, communications, abstracts, chapters or reviews. Please also include any in press or submitted articles. These should be submitted as supplemental files in PDF format and reference made to them in the authors' covering letter. Taking material from another’s work and submitting it as one’s own is considered plagiarism. Taking material (including tables, figures, and data; or extended text passages) from the authors’ own prior publications is considered duplicate publication or self-plagiarism and is not permitted (*see exception). Fabricating a report of research or suppressing or altering data to agree with one’s conclusions is considered fraud; this includes altering figures in such a way as to obscure, move, remove, or introduce information or features. This policy applies to results in the widest sense and not simply to figures or parts of figures.

  • Repetition of control experiments using animal models may violate U.S. Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service Policy requirements, as well as standards in other countries, for use of the minimum number of animals needed to accomplish the science. As such, reuse of control data in animal studies may not be considered duplicate publication when the methodology and conditions are identical.
  • Using one’s own previously published text to describe specific methods is permissible.


Be sure that the language in your manuscript is original, without inclusion of any previously published textual passages (including those from authors’ own prior publications). Authors may wish to screen their manuscript for textual similarities prior to submission using fee for service scholarly publishing databases such as iThenticate or other free general screening databases including Plagiarism Checker. Please note that Physiological Reports does not endorse any screening program for use by authors nor guarantees that these screening tools will detect all instances of textual overlap.

Physiological Reports uses iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit


Ensure your paper is clearly written in standard, scientific English language appropriate to your discipline. Visit our site to learn about the options. Please note that using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.


If the Editor has doubts about the ethical acceptability of experiments conducted on animals or humans, the editorial office will ensure that the authors are asked to address the problem before undertaking any scientific revision. The authors will be advised to proceed only when the Editors are satisfied that the issue has been resolved; usually this involves revision of the Materials and Methods section such that sufficient experimental details are provided to assure that ethically acceptable studies were conducted.


Editors and Reviewers avoid making decisions on papers for which they may have a potential conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. Reviewers who are collaborating with the author, or who are working on very similar research, should recuse themselves from reviewing a paper for which they have a conflict. The Editor-in-Chief, Deputy Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors will have Consulting Editors making a decision on a paper for which he or she has a conflict. When the Editor-in-Chief, Deputy Editor-in-Chief or Associate Editors submits a paper to Physiological Reports, the paper is automatically assigned to a Consulting Editor, who will handle all aspects of the peer review of the paper. Such reviews are handled in the web-based peer review system in such a way that these authors (e.g., the Editor-in-Chief) will not have access.


Any ethical concerns should be referred immediately, in strict confidence, to the Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editor-in-Chief. Reviewers have a responsibility to report suspected duplicate publication, fraud, plagiarism, or concerns about animal or human experimentation to the Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editor-in-Chief. A reviewer may recognize and report that he/she is refereeing, or has recently refereed, a similar or identical paper for another journal by the same author(s). Readers may report that they have seen the same article elsewhere, or authors may see their own published work being plagiarized. In all cases we address ethical concerns diligently following the guidelines of the Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE Guidelines).

If the infraction is less severe, the Editor-in-Chief and Deputy Editor-in-Chief, upon the advice of the Societies, will send a letter of reprimand to the author and reminds the author of publication policies; if the manuscript has been published, the Editor may require the author to publish a corrigendum in the journal to correct the record. In serious cases of fraud that result in retraction of the article, a retraction notice will be published in the journal and will be linked to the article in the online version. The online version will also be marked “retracted” with the retraction date.



The Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editor-in-Chief will evaluate all manuscripts submitted to Physiological Reports for suitability with the Aims and Scope, as well as the quality of the science and appropriateness. For those manuscripts judged to be suitable, anonymous peer reviewers (most commonly two) will evaluate each manuscript.

In the event that a manuscript has been referred from another journal along with comments from previous reviewers/editors, the Editor-in-Chief, Deputy Editor-in-Chief or Associate Editor will take the previous reviews into account when making their decision. In some cases, the editors may choose to take advice from additional reviewers.


Authors are invited to suggest at least three names of appropriate peer reviewers and their email addresses. Authors are encouraged also to list any individuals they wish to exclude from manuscript review, most commonly because of conflicts of interest. The editors reserve the right to accept or decline these requests.


Authors of manuscripts judged to be of sufficient interest and quality, but needing changes prior to publication, will be invited to revise their manuscript in response to the reviewers’ and editor’s critiques. When submitting the revised manuscript, specify in a point-by-point fashion each criticism/comment from the editor(s) and peer reviewers with the appropriate author response, especially if you disagree. Provide this information as instructed on the submission website.


Soon after acceptance, you will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site to access your proofs for final content correction within our rapid production workflow. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Once you have submitted your corrections, the production office will finalize the layout of your article for publication.


As this is an open access journal, you have free, unlimited access to your article online. However, if you wish to purchase professionally printed reprints, these may be ordered online:


Please direct any questions regarding the production of your article to the Production Editor at